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Timely and Broad Opportunity

The Renaissance, coming a thousand years after the decline and fall of the Roman Empire, reestablished science on a stronger basis than before, and technological advancement has continued on an accelerating path since then. The hallmark of the Renaissance was its holistic quality, as all fields of art, engineering, science, and culture shared the same exciting spirit and many of the same intellectual principles. A creative individual, schooled in multiple arts, might be a painter one day, an engineer the next, and a writer the day after that. However, as the centuries passed, the holism of the Renaissance gave way to specialization and intellectual fragmentation. Today, with the scientific work of recent decades showing us at a deeper level the fundamental unity of natural organization, it is time to rekindle the spirit of the Renaissance, returning to the holistic perspective on a higher level, with a new set of principles and theories. This report underlines several broad, long-term...

Determinism and reductionism

While these writers see only advantage in working at a scale of 1-100nm, at the same scale as some viruses, and with mitochondria (larger than many engineered nanoparticles) and DNA (2nm wide), they almost entirely miss the intrinsic hazards and unknown risks that go with a technology with structures that can penetrate and interact in unpredictable ways with such subcellular structures of life. Popular books on nanotechnology are rife with reductionist phrases, such as the assurance that nanotechnologies will work well because life is already nanotechnological, life processes are 'tiny machines', and mitochondria are really just 'molecular machines'. Richard Smalley said in 1999, 'Every living thing is made of cells that are chock full of nanomachines -proteins, DNA, RNA, etc ' (Smalley, 1999). 'Biomimetics' is announced as a new reductionist science.

Connectionism and Neural Networks

Association of learning with ongoing alteration of synaptic function was considered by several late 19th century writers and was popularized due to the Pavlovian and behaviorist influences of conditioned responses. Pavlov (1928) proposed that conditioned reflexes are established by forming new connections between cortical neurons that receive a conditioned stimulus (one accompanied by a reward or punishment) and those that receive an unconditioned stimulus. Once a new pathway was established the unconditioned stimulus would acquire the same power of evoking the response that only the conditioned stimulus originally possessed. Pavlov's idea of a new connection became fused with Donald Hebb's (1949) concept of plastic changes in synaptic efficacy to correlate with learning. Because it was believed that new fibers and therefore new synaptic connections, could not grow in adults, long term facilitation of anatomically preformed, initially nonfunctional connections became the likely...

Process flow for mask fabrication

Writing shapes other than rectangles can be difficult for mask makers. Photomasks are written by machines designed to do XY-orthogonal structures. The CAD programs for IC design support drawing on XY-grid, and even data conversion from design program to mask writer program can be difficult for non-rectilinear shapes. Photomasks are, however, not necessarily XY-symmetric. For instance, stitching of subfields can be made as small as 6 nm in X-direction, but not in Y-direction, because the former depends on beam scanning, but the latter on the mechanical stage movement. Smoothly curving lines needed in integrated optics are difficult, and circles and arbitrary angles pose difficulties, too. Edge definition of structures other than XY-lines can, of course, be increased by using smaller writing grid, or double exposure, both of which increase writing time considerably. perfect mask plate (known as die-to-die) or a comparison between design data and the finished mask plate (die-to-data)....

The Structure of the Vacuum

Unfortunately for science fiction writers, this parallel is superficial. No one could ever maintain that the speed of sound was a true physical limit. Meteors and bullets exceeded it daily, and even cracking whips cracked the sound barrier. But no one has seen anything move faster than light. Distant spots seen by radio telescopes sometimes appear to move faster, but simple tricks of perspective easily explain how this can be. Hypothetical

Globalization multinational corporations and law

There is now also a growing debate about the applicability of international (particularly human rights) norms to corporations. Multinational corporations have been accused both of direct human rights abuses and of colluding in various ways with repressive states. Because of the normative implications of this task many writers have drawn on 'complicity', a notion widely recognized in systems of criminal law. Indeed it has been claimed that complicity is 'an essential concept in the context of international efforts to ensure a higher standards sic of corporate social responsibility' (Clapham, 2002, p241). But international law does not easily recognize non-state actors. However powerful corporations are, they are not states. Some writers speak of the end of the state (Ohmae, 1990, 1996), while others talk more in terms of the changing role of the state in an era of globalization. It

Sources of Ethical Behavior

Ethical questions related to nanotechnology are not limited to the ways people might use it to harm others intentionally, but also include obligations to avoid potentially harmful unintended consequences 38.34 . An example of the former might be a weapon and of the latter, a kind of environmental pollution. In either case, the harm might be morally justified, as when a nation employs a weapon to defend against attack, or when limited pollution of the environment is offset by substantial benefits to humanity. Other ethical questions concern harm to the owners of nanotechnology, for example, if a competing company violates a nanotech patent, or if a government bans a nano-related product without careful examination of scientific evidence about its value. News reporters or popular writers who spread false information about nanotechnology may also be acting unethically, whether they are willfully lying or merely failing to be professionally diligent in checking their facts.

Draper Fisher Jurvetson

The firm's focus on nanotechnology is driven by renowned venture capitalist Steve Jurvetson. Jurvetson, who was named one of the most influential people under 40 by Fortune magazine, is often referred to as Mr. Nanotech. He is a cochair of the NanoBusiness Alliance and a prolific writer and speaker at nanotech conferences. Perhaps his influence in the field is best illustrated

Lesson one substantial equivalence

An examination of the literature reveals David Forrest (1989) to be one of the earliest writers on the challenges of regulating nanotechnology. Forrest suggests that regulation of this technology should occur in four distinct phases based on the development of assemblers. Assemblers are machines that manufacture objects on an atom-by-atom or molecule-by-molecule basis. The development of assemblers will accelerate bottom-up, rather than top-down, approaches to manufacturing and machining. Top-down refers to precision machining that strips away material from the macroscopic to the nanoscopic level. Bottom-up approaches use synthetic chemistry, bioengineering tools, and devices like the 'nanohand' to physically place individual molecules into a predetermined location.5 Forrest believes that the development of assembler technology, and different levels of containment for pre- and post-release of nanoassembling devices, is key to understanding how best to regulate this technology. He...

Chemical shrink of dark field structures

It should be noted that the mask writing process has a similar information flow and similar error sources the mask writer has finite resolution, the photoresist used in mask writing is similar to resists used in optical lithography, and chrome etching has its non-idealities just like any other etching process.

Conclusions

While we have so far considered the fabrication of linear structures (i.e., nanowires), the advanced capabilities of a modern e-beam writer also suggest much more complex patterns from production of arrays of nanosize dots right up to the creation or repair of integrated circuits. Further research into the interaction of electrons with nanoparticles is essential to understand and thus optimize the fabrication processes. This should involve detailed structural and compositional analysis. For example, in-situ high resolution TEM images of the direct e-beam writing process would give insights into the formation and growth of the nanowires as a function of the electron dose. By combining this structural information with the compositional analysis and electrical measurements, it may be possible to improve both the sensitivity and the resolution of the technique as well as to optimize the conductivity of the resulting nanometer-scale metallic structures for advanced applications.

Michael Krieger

For his start-up clients, Chinh assists with strategies for leveraging their IP portfolio for high-value commercial opportunities, introducing them to funding sources, either through the venture community or the government, as well as identifying and establishing for these clients strategic alliances with industry leaders. Chinh is the founder of the NanoTechnology and Business Forum, a monthly forum dedicated to the business of nanotechnology. He is also the Secretary of ASTM International Nanotechnology Committee. Chinh is a frequent speaker and writer on the intersection between nanotechnology, intellectual property, and business.

Fiona Case

In 1999 she was hired into a central research group at Colgate Palmolive. This presented challenges, including materials structure and property prediction for toothpaste, detergent, hard surface care and personal care products, and packaging and fragrance technology. In 2003 Case left Colgate Palmolive to move to beautiful Vermont with her husband, Martin Case, and to found Case Scientific (www.casescientific.com), offering consultancy and contract research in soft nanotechnology, computational chemistry, and polymer and surfactant science. Case is a Chartered Chemist and a member of the Royal Society of Chemistry, the ACS, the American Oil Chemists Society, and the National Association of Science Writers.

Alignment

Instead of direct writing of millions of pixels on a wafer, beam writers can be used to write photomasks for optical lithography. The simplest photomasks are just laser-printed overhead transparencies they are suitable for structures in the size range of hundreds of micrometres and for simple demos, for example, in a student lab. The printed circuit board industry uses more advanced laser plotters and polyester transparency films, with minimum lines of ca. 30 to 50 m. Polymer-based masks suffer from wear and tear and from dimensional instability. The time to write for a 10 cm x 10 cm area is approximately one hour, as the calculations below show. Typical resist sensitivities vary between 1 to 10 C cm2 100 C cm2 is usual for high-resolution resist, poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) and beam currents range from 1 to 250 nA (or even less for modified SEMs that are used as e-beam writers), which gives tj of the order of 400 to 40 000 s for 250 nA depending on resist sensitivity. Write time...

Stateofthe Art

In the research areas of universities, the economical suitable optical contact lithography with UV light is used which enables a resolution in the upper submicrome-ter range, but with reduced yield. However, semiconductor manufacturing plants and research institutes use the expensive projection exposure as wafer scan, step and repeat or step scan procedure which also enables a small defect density and thus a high yield, beside the improved resolution. Electron-beam writers are used for mask making and sometimes for direct substrate exposure, too.

Acknowledgements

The ideas in this book have been shaped by many minds. All authors bear an incalculable debt to earlier writers and thinkers, and the Notes and References section provides a partial acknowledgment of my debt. But other people have had a more immediate influence by reading and criticizing all or part of the several papers, articles, and draft manuscripts ancestral to the present version of this book. Their contributions have ranged from brief letters to extensive, detailed criticisms, suggestions, and revisions they deserve much of the credit for the evolution of the manuscript toward its present form and content. I do, however, claim all blame for its remaining failings.

Of Nanotechnology

We must traverse before we will know what is technically practical, what real-world applications nanotechnology might actually have, and what the appropriate societal responses would be to any hazards that might be directly or indirectly related to these applications. Some writers in the popular press seem to treat nanotechnology as However, the very fact that some writers are urging regulation or banning of nanotechnology suggests that the debate about its value to humanity has begun, and we need to bring the best possible thinking and information to that debate 38.8-10 . In addition, a few relatively simple but significant applications have begun to appear, so in those cases at least an impact can be observed. Social scientists, natural scientists, philosophers, and engineers have indeed begun considering the future of nanotechnology, so we can draw upon the very first serious intellectual efforts in this important field.

General Applications

Dip pen technologies have been adapted and modified in various forms which include E-DPN or Electrochemical DPN 1, 2, 23 , electroless DPN 35 , cathodic alkyne elec-trografting 14 , DPN using diels alder reaction 28 , SP-CP or scanning probe contact printing 41 , static plowing 34 and nano-grafting 3 which has also been referred to as NPRW (nano pen reader and writer). With the exception of E-DPN and nano-grafting, which have been demonstrated for patterning of bio-molecular devices the other derivative methods have been demonstrated for only small organic, inorganic and polymer molecules and therefore are left out of the scope of the current discussion. Interested readers are advised to consult the relevant references quoted above.

Hybrid Lithography

In order to improve resolution and keeping throughput high, sometimes write lithography is combined with print lithography. For example, the combination of imprinting with scanning probe lithography for the mold preparation may possibly provide an important breakthrough for a low-cost mass preparation of nanometer scale devices. At this point, the local oxidation of semiconductor or metal surfaces seems to offer the most reliable method to produce the required molds. It is important to note that the scanning probe microscopes can at the same time also be used to inspect the mold quality down to atomic scale. As a second example, the use of electron-sensitive deep UV resists opens up the possibility to expose the same resist layer both in a deep UV stepper and an electron-beam writer before development the so-called mix-and-match technology. In this way, large surface areas are being exposed with medium-to-low resolution by the fast stepper, whereas the high-resolution details are...

Non Drexlerian Echoes

Many writers frame nanotechnology with a chart describing conspicuous features and characteristic entities of length scales from the humanly familiar (usually one meter or centimeter - represented by a familiar animal such as a bee or a cat) to the sub-nanoscopic (one angstrom - represented by a hydrogen atom) and everything in between. Often, these writers juxtapose the chart of length scales with a chart of sig Drexler and his critics agree, then, that nano is on its way whether we choose to be part of it or not. They agree, too, that when it arrives, everything will be different society will have to adapt to nano much more than the other way around. Drexler's vision of the post-nano world is perhaps the more sweeping, and it has clearly influenced the vivid, exquisitely imaginative depictions of science fiction writers such as Neal

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